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Leadership is the other side of the coin of loneliness, and he who is a leader must always act alone. And acting alone, accept everything alone.
~ Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (September 11th, 1917 – September 28th, 1989) was a Filipino strongman and dictator who held the title of President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986 and was the husband of Imelda Marcos. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949 – 1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959 – 1965). He was Senate President from 1963 – 1965.

While in power he implemented wide-ranging programs of infrastructure development and economic reform. However, his administration was marred by massive authoritarian corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression, and human rights violations. The controversy was that he may have been an extremely polarizing figure as his loyalists, cronies, and critics call him the best president they ever had and the most corrupt one.

Early Life

Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, to Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin (1893–1988). He was later baptized into the Philippine Independent Church, but was first baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three.

Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines in Manila, attending the prestigious College of Law. He excelled in both curricular and extra-curricular activities, becoming a valuable member of the university's swimming, boxing, and wrestling teams. He was also an accomplished and prolific orator, debater, and writer for the student newspaper. While attending the UP College of Law, he became a member of the Upsilon Sigma Phi, where he met his future colleagues in government and some of his staunchest critics. When he sat for the 1939 Bar Examinations, he received a near-perfect score of 98.8%, but allegations of cheating prompted the Philippine Supreme Court to re-calibrate his score to 92.35%. He graduated cum laude. He was elected to the Pi Gamma Mu and the Phi Kappa Phi international honor societies, the latter giving him its Most Distinguished Member Award 37 years later.

Life as a President

Ferdinand Marcos was inaugurated to his first term as the tenth President of the Philippines on 30 December 1965, after winning the Philippine presidential election of 1965 against the incumbent President, Diosdado Macapagal. His inauguration marked the beginning of his two-decade long stay in power, even though the 1935 Philippine Constitution had set a limit of only two four-year terms of office.

Before Marcos' presidency, the Philippines was the second largest economy in Asia, behind only Japan. He pursued an aggressive program of infrastructure development funded by foreign loans, making him very popular throughout almost all of his first term and eventually making him the first and only President of the Third Philippine Republic to win a second term, although it would also trigger an inflationary crisis which would lead to social unrest in his second term, and would eventually lead to his declaration of martial law in 1972.

On the evening of September 23, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos announced that he had placed the entirety of the Philippines under martial law. This marked the beginning of a 14-year period of one man rule which would effectively last until Marcos was exiled from the country on February 25, 1986. Even though the formal document proclaiming martial law - Proclamation No. 1081 - was formally lifted on January 17, 1981, Marcos retained virtually all of his powers as dictator until he was ousted by the EDSA Revolution.

Martial Law Torture

The various torture methods used by the Marcos dictatorship in the years between the declaration of martial law in 1972 and the Marcos family's ouster during the People Power Revolution in 1986 included a range of methods Philippine forces picked up during its long periods of colonial occupation under Spanish, American, and Japanese forces, but also a number of new methods arising from the modern technologies of the later 20th century. These included sexual assaults including rape and degradation; non-sexual physical tortures including variants of electrocution, waterboarding, suffocation, burning, and beating; and various forms of psychological torture. It was lesser known as it was in Nazi Germany with tortures.

For Marcos to continue to act as head of state and government, his declaration of Martial Law had to achieve seven objectives:

  1. . Control the military and police.
  2. . Control the Supreme Court.
  3. . Undermine the Philippine public's faith in democracy.
  4. . Exploit and abet lawlessness and instability.
  5. . Exaggerate the Communist threat
  6. . Get political backing from the United States.
  7. . Hijack the constitutional convention.

Various forms of torture were used by forces under the Marcos regime, usually combined with each other.

Physical torture

Physical torture was also often inflicted upon victims. Aside from deadly weapons, implements of torture included water, pliers, thumb tacks, ballpoint pens, and flat irons. Physical torture took the forms of:

  • beatings. Almost all who were tortured were subjected to beatings. Victims include Roland Simbulan, Julius Giron, Macario Tiu, Eugenio Magpantay
  • Electric shock (also known as the Meralco treatment) - where electric wires were attached to fingers, genitalia, arms or the head of the victim, beatings. Victims include Etta Rosales, Charlie Revilla Palma,
  • San Juanico Bridge or air treatment - Victim lies between two cots. If the victim's body falls or sags, he or she would be beaten. Victims include Jose "Pete" Lacaba
  • Truth serum. Victims include Pete Lacaba, Danilo Vizmanos, Fernando Tayag, Bernardo Escarcha,
  • Russian roulette - a revolver with one bullet loaded is spun up, aimed at the head of the victim, and then the trigger pulled. Victims include Etta Rosales, Cesar Taguba, Carlos Centenera
  • Pistol-whipping - beating with rifle or pistol butts. Victims include Reynaldo Guillermo, Robert sunga, Joseph Gatus, Maria Elena-Ang and Nathan Quimpo.
  • Water cure (also known as the Nawasa treatment)- large amounts of water would be forced through the victim's mouth, then forced out by beating. Victims Include Judy Taguiwalo, Guillermo Ponce de Leon,
  • Wet submarine - victims' heads would be submerged in a toilet full of urine and excrement. Victims include Charlie Palma and Wenifredo Villareal.
  • Dry submarine - victims' heads would be inserted into plastic bags, causing suffocation. Victims include Rolieto Trinidad.
  • Strangulation - Done by hand, electric wire or steel bar. Victims include Etta Rosales, Carlos Centenera, Willie Tatanis, Juan Villegas and Reynaldo Rodriguez.
  • Ashtray - cigarette burns would be inflicted on the victim. Victims include Marcelino Tolam Jr., Philip Limjoco, Charley Palma, Ma. Cristina Verzola, Reynaldo Rodriguez
  • Flat iron burns - feet are burned with flat irons. Victims include Cenon Sembrano and Bonifacio Ilagan.
  • Candle burns. Victims include Etta Rosales
  • Sinusunog na rekado (burning spices) or Pepper torture - concentrated peppery substance placed on lips, ears and genitals. Victims include Rolieto Trinidad,Meynardo Espeleta.
  • Animal treatment - victims are manacled and caged like beasts. Victims include Leandro Manalo, Alexander Arevalo, Manuel Daez, Marcelo Gallarin, romualdo Inductivo, Faustino Samonte, Rodolfo Macasalabang. Others like Cesar Taguba was made to drink his own urine and Satur Ocampo was made to eat his own feces.
  • Cold torture - Forcing victims to sit against air conditioners set on maximum while shirtless, or to sit or lie down on blocks of ice while naked (sometimes with electric wires). Victims include Rolieto Trinidad, Nestor Bugayong, Winifredo Hilao
  • Food deprivation. Victims include CPP founder Jose Maria Sison and Rev. Cesar Taguba.
  • Pompyang (cymbals) - ear clapping. Victims include Charlie Revilla and Julius Giron.
  • Putting bullets between fingers then squeezing the hands tightly. Victims include Erlene Dangoy.

Sexual torture

  • Rape.[19] Victims include Maria Cristina Pargas-Bawagan, Etta Rosales, and Erlene Dangoy.
  • Gang Rape. Victims include Hilda Narciso.
  • Molestation. Victims include Judy Taguiwalo, Erlinda Taruc-Co and Cristina Pargas
  • Sticks inserted into penises. Victims include Bonifacio Ilagan.

Psychological torture

Among the forms of psychological torture performed were:

  • Solitary confinement. Victims include Ninoy Aquino, Danilo Vizmanos, CPP/NPA Leaders Victor Corpus, Bernabe Buscayno, and Jose Maria Sison, and World War II Hunter's Guerrilla forces commander Eleuterio "Terry" Adevoso, who was accused of plotting a coup.
  • Sleep deprivation. Victims include Ninoy Aquino and Maria Elena-Ang.
  • Playing loud, repetitive music. Victims include Ninoy Aquino.
  • Forcing victims to strip naked. Victims include Virgillo Villegas, Maria Elena Ang, Erlene Dangoy, and Monica Atienza

Exile and death

When EDSA People Power was near, Marcos and Aquino were in voting. At Comelec, Marcos got 10m votes over Aquino but she got 7m votes over Marcos in Namfrel, this sparked much controversy and she called for civil disobedience. After Marcos was ousted from the Philippines and exiled to Hawaii, he later died on the day of September 28, 1989, succumbing to lupus.

Controversy

After his burial in Libingnan Ng Mga Bayani, people might think he's the soldier or most decorated war veteran. His loyalists and loyal supporters were attempting to bring him to life as the eternal president of the Philippines and a hero despite his death in 1989, but they were trying to lash out critics but to whitewash the atrocities. These "bad" sites were GetRealPhilippines and "bad" fan pages on Facebook, VOVPH, Marcos Loyalists, etc. would attempt to rehabilitate and sanitize Marcoses and have reunification of the Philippines to regain control for what Aquinos "liberated it". They would attempt to make FEM ascend to godhood regardless of any religion much more like Kim Il-Sung and Adolf Hitler combined.

Anti-heroic acts or evil acts

  • Ferdinand Marcos attained 32 medals, which turned out to be fake by the USA.
  • He completed 200 achievements such as buildings.
  • He formulated 7,000 decrees,
  • But he and the army killed 3,200 people and tortured 34,000 of them.
  • Before his death, the debt was $28 billion dollars.

Quotes

Nobody is impervious to misfortune.

Trivia

  • According to Mister C.F.'s image in Google Plus before it was closed down. This is to say that is a trinity of the power of propaganda where Ferdinand E. Marcos is alongside Kim Il-Sung and Adolf Hitler. Despite being hated by many people wordwide, they are respected and beloved by their loyalists.
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